Stogdill (1948) reviewed 124 trait studies conducted from 1904 to 1948 and found that the pattern of results was consistent with the conception of a leader as someone who acquires status by showing the ability to help the group in attaining its goals. The following conclusions were supported by uniformly positive evidence from the study surveyed:

  1. The average person who occupies a position of leadership exceeds the average member of his group in the following respects:
        1. intelligence,
        2. scholarship,
        3. dependability in exercising responsibilities,
        4. activity and social participation,
        5. socio-economic status,
        6. initiative,
        7. persistence,
        8. knowing how to get things done,
        9. self confidence,
        10. alertness to, and insight into, situations,
        11. cooperativeness,
        12. popularity,
        13. adaptability,
        14. verbal facility.
  2. The qualities, characteristics and skills required in a leader are determined to a large extent by the demands of the situation in which he is to function as a leader.
  3. The items with highest overall correlation with leadership are originality, popularity, sociability, judgment, aggressiveness, desire to excel, humor, cooperativeness, liveliness, and athletic ability, in appropriate order of magnitude of average correlation coefficient.
  4. In spite of considerable negative evidence, the general trend of results suggests a low positive correlation between leadership and such variables as chronological age, height, weight, physique, energy, appearance, dominance, and mood control.

He classified all factors associated with leadership under the general headings of capacity, achievement, responsibility, participation, status and situation:

  • Capacity (intelligence, alertness, verbal facility, originality, judgment),
  • Achievement (scholarship, knowledge, athletic accomplishment),
  • Responsibility (dependability, initiative, persistence, aggressiveness, self confidence, desire to excel),
  • Participation (activity, sociability, cooperation, adaptability, humor),
  • Status (socio-economic position, popularity),
  • Situation (mental level, status, skills, needs and interests of followers, objectives to be achieved etc.).
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